Why Aren’t We Prepared?

Global catastrophic biological risks (GCBRs) can have a massive impact on humanity — affecting people’s lives, the global economy, and international relations. Regardless of whether they’re naturally occurring, accidental, or manmade, the risk of GCBRs is only increasing. Despite the immense threat they pose, the problem of biosecurity is generally overlooked and under-prioritized.

Throughout history there have been numerous plagues (the Spanish Flu in the 1920s, the Bubonic plague in the 1500s, etc.) which have taken many lives. However, now in the 21st century, as a result of urbanization and biotechnology innovation, the probability of pandemics and biological risks will…

What actually happens in your body with an elevated temperature?

Having a high temperature can be uncomfortable and alarming, especially in times like these. And while it’s likely that you’ve experienced a fever at some point in your life, you may be unaware of what exactly is going on inside your body.

Simply put, a fever is a higher body temperature than normal. Your body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day, with lower body temperatures occurring in the early morning, and higher temperatures in the afternoon. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), your body temperature is only considered a fever if it’s at least 100.4 …

Can you imagine being able to turn any thought into a reality — being able to turn an image from your mind into a physical object you could hold? Sounds a lot like a science fiction movie… but in theory it’s possible right now with 3D Printing.

3D printing is the process of creating three-dimensional solid objects from a digital file. It uses additive processes, meaning an object is made by laying down successive layers of a given material.

Where could we apply this technology to make real world impacts? Perhaps the most exiting application is that 3D printing has…

A solar flare is an immense output of energy due to disturbances in magnetic field lines that causes a sudden flash of increased brightness on the Sun. On August 7, 1972 there was a massive solar flare which created an accelerated wave of particles, mostly protons. The wave of particles would have been severely dangerous to anyone outside Earth’s magnetosphere. The Apollo 16 crew had returned to Earth just five months earlier. They just narrowly missed what could have been a tragic accident. …

Should we allocate the money invested in the space tech industry to other causes?

Humanity was built to explore — it’s not just in our nature, it’s in our DNA. Since our beginning we have traveled the planet searching for answers. Even before we finished discovering all there was on our planet, we began to look beyond. More specifically, we began to look up. We craved more knowledge; we wanted to understand our purpose and our place in a world of which we knew so little. We looked to the stars.

And what could the twinkling spheres of nuclear fusion billions of light years away teach us? They taught us our insignificance. And yet…

The second in a series debating the worth of space exploration

What if humanity managed to unite and as a global government we invested all our resources in finding and reaching a new planet?

Then the question becomes, what planet?

There aren’t any options in our solar system. Earth is the only planet in our solar system that’s in the habitable zone. The habitable zone is a certain distance away from a star where a given planet within that range of distance could have liquid water on its surface and potentially harbor life. Venus is too close to the sun and Mars is too far, but Earth on the other hand…

The third in a series debating the worth of space exploration

So if we can’t overcome climate change here on Earth or get to a new planet in time, is the human race doomed?


What I do know is that taking money away from NASA and other space agencies won’t save us. Yes, they still cost a lot of money. But are these costs even measurable? What does money mean in the face of scientific knowledge? How can we put a dollar value on curiosity and inspiration?

I’d like to conclude this series of articles with the story of the spacecraft Voyager 1.

Drug development and preclinical/clinical research have traditionally focused more on the male physiology and less on the female one. For example, more men are enrolled in clinical trials than women are and more male animals are used in biomedical research. This can be seen when looking at Figure 1.

When you imagine Earth from space, the picture above most likely resembles what you think of. We see this Earth in picture books and on TV. And that makes sense — this is Earth. Or, at least the Earth we’ve been taught about. But, in reality, this is what Earth used to look like.

In fact, today it looks something more like the animation below. As time passed, our need for telecommunications and weather satellites grew and launches occurred with increasing frequency. …

The same Doppler Effect that changes a siren’s pitch as it passes by an observer is used by planetary scientists to find exoplanets. Exoplanets orbit other stars outside our solar system. They are new worlds that may be habitable. The technique is known as Doppler spectroscopy, also referred to as the radial-velocity method, or the “wobble method.”

How does it work?

Spectrographs are high-resolution prism-like instruments that are able to separate light waves into different colors. When mounted on ground based telescopes they can be used to measure redshifts and blueshifts from astronomical objects extremely far away, such as a star. Scientists can also…

Simone Lilavois

A New York City high school sophmore passionate about redefining space exploration.

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