Source: The Guardian

Drug development and preclinical/clinical research have traditionally focused more on the male physiology and less on the female one. For example, more men are enrolled in clinical trials than women are and more male animals are used in biomedical research. This can be seen when looking at Figure 1.

Source: World Maps Online

When you imagine Earth from space, the picture above most likely resembles what you think of. We see this Earth in picture books and on TV. And that makes sense — this is Earth. Or, at least the Earth we’ve been taught about. But, in reality, this is what Earth used to look like.

In fact, today it looks something more like the animation below. As time passed, our need for telecommunications and weather satellites grew and launches occurred with increasing frequency. …

Artist’s impression of an exoplanet. Source: PHYS ORG

The same Doppler Effect that changes a siren’s pitch as it passes by an observer is used by planetary scientists to find exoplanets. Exoplanets orbit other stars outside our solar system. They are new worlds that may be habitable. The technique is known as Doppler spectroscopy, also referred to as the radial-velocity method, or the “wobble method.”

How does it work?

Spectrographs are high-resolution prism-like instruments that are able to separate light waves into different colors. When mounted on ground based telescopes they can be used to measure redshifts and blueshifts from astronomical objects extremely far away, such as a star. Scientists can also…

An illustration of NASA’s Perseverance rover landing safely on Mars. Source: CNET

With five days on the clock, the Perseverance rover, built by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, is getting close to touching down. After being launched on July 30, Perseverance is scheduled to land in the Jezero Crater on Mars on February 18. Many events need to occur in a specific order during the final minutes of the rover’s nearly seven-month journey. The mission, aptly given the name, “Mars 2020” has four main objectives:

  1. Look for habitability: identify past environments able to support microbial life
  2. Seek biosignatures: find signs of possible past microbial life in those habitable environments, particularly…

Source: Universe Today

Have you ever wondered why the pitch of a siren drops while an ambulance passes by? Or wondered how scientists discovered that the universe was expanding? Well, believe it or not, the answers to those two questions are deeply related through something called the Doppler effect.

The Doppler effect can be observed for all types of waves, sound, light, even ocean waves. Both sound and light waves travel at a finite speed, though light is significantly faster and is the fastest thing that can move through space.

Born on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria, Christian Doppler was the person…

Science fiction or reality?

Proposed antimatter rocket. Source: NASA

Common in science fiction, an antimatter powered rocket is not new. In fact, the propulsion system was first proposed by Eugen Sänger in 1953. When seen powering the Enterprise in “Star Trek” to speeds faster than light, using antimatter as an energy source seems completely in the realm of fiction. However, this futuristic technology may not be as far off as you think.

Let’s take a step back. What is antimatter?


There’s no trick, it’s exactly what it sounds like. The prefix ‘anti’ has Greek origin and means, “against, opposed to, opposite of, instead.” Antiparticles make up antimatter just as…

Genes, Proteins, and DNA

The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Most recent estimates put the number of cells at approximately 30 trillion. (Written out, that’s 30,000,000,000,000) Cells are the building blocks of all living things — they have many different parts, each with different functions.

Each cell has a set of instructions for making us, like a recipe book for the body. This set of instructions is called our genome and is made up of deoxyribonucleic acids, DNA.

DNA is a long molecule that holds our unique genetic code. It contains the instructions for making all the proteins in our…

My thoughts on stoicism and antifragility

Source: Word Press

1. You control this moment and this moment only

Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, said that he intentionally made Mr. Spock to be modeled after stoicism. However, Spock’s character is an inaccurate representation of stoicism (although it doesn’t make me love Mr. Spock any less). Mr. Spock is portrayed as emotionless and only relying on logic. Stoicism is often mistaken for not having any emotions or pretending your emotions do not exist. This is not true. Rather stoicism is about domesticating your emotions and being able to act reasonably in unreasonable situations. It’s not about what happens to us, rather our response to what happens that matters…

An explanation of how and why it works

Materials used to build. Source: Kiwico

Persistence of vision: an optical phenomenon. It’s when multiple images in succession change quickly enough that our brains blend them into one, consistent animation.

I created my own version of this phenomenon when I built a geometric laser projector. Scroll down to skip to the 5-minute video, or keep reading to understand how and why it works.


Batteries are able to store electrical energy in the form of chemical energy and then convert that energy into electricity. “You cannot catch and store electricity, but you can store electrical energy in the chemicals inside a battery.” …

Cultural Appropriation, Cultural Assimilation and Cultural Exchange

Source: The Racquet Press

The term “cultural appropriation” is extremely controversial and widely misunderstood. Many falsely believe cultural appropriation is when a group of people “gatekeep” their culture. It goes much deeper than this — it has to do with an imbalance of power between the dominant and minority groups in society. There is no right way to engage in cultural appropriation. It has only negative effects on minority communities. The right way to engage in each other’s cultures is through cultural exchange, which is when both groups benefit.

Cultural Appropriation

Cultural appropriation is a “particular power dynamic in which members of a dominant culture take…

Simone Lilavois

A New York City high school freshman passionate about redefining space exploration.

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